A guide for language learners
German, like Spanish, French, and many other languages, has gendered nouns (definite articles: der, die, das), and nouns that refer to people and professions are often binary, with die/der variations. However, it is important to distinguish between grammatical gender and gender in the way that we talk about gender identity in society and culture. Grammatical gender is quite random, for example: a fork, knife, and spoon all have different articles (die Gabel, das Messer, der Löffel). When we refer to objects in German, instead of saying “it,” we use the gendered article or pronoun. Der Tisch? Er ist neu! For German learners, that takes some getting used to.
But what about talking about people? How can we make our language more inclusive? How can we use gender-neutral language when we don’t want to specify a person’s gender? What pronouns do German speakers use when they identify as non-binary or genderqueer?
Gender Inclusive Language
Language has always changed depending on the needs of its speakers. In English, gendered terms like “mailman,” “policeman,” and “chairman” have been replaced by postal worker, police officer, and chair. Instead of saying “man-made” we say “synthetic.” When using pronouns, many writers and speakers now use the gender-neutral pronoun their to refer to people instead of “his” or “her”: “Someone left their laptop on the table!” or “The next player needs to take their turn!”
Why does this matter?
There are certain social and cultural structures within binary languages that may affect how we think of gender roles in society. In German, for example, feminist activists have argued that using the generic masculine terms for certain professions (saying “der Arzt” when we want to refer to a generic doctor) may affect how we visualize or conceptualize these professions and the people who occupy them. While in English we can say “the professor” and refer to a man or a woman or a non-binary person, in German the word Professor or Professorin is gendered.
Here’s another concrete example: A 10th-grade teacher might say “Alle Schüler auf die Plätze!” (Students to their seats!), and use the masculine plural Schüler to refer to a mixed group of Schüler and Schülerinnen (fem). Many people think this kind of language can be exclusionary. For example, in 2018 a group of girls in Germany made a powerful video called “Sichtbar sein” (Being visible), arguing that they want to be made visible in the language, not just always included within the masculine plural. In the video, they rap: “Er sagt ‘Politiker’, ‘Wissenschaftler’, ‘Arzt’, ‘Astronaut’, aber seien wir doch mal ehrlich, wer denkt da schon an ‚ne Frau?” (He says the generic, male terms for ‘politician’, ‘scientist’, ‘doctor’, ‘astronaut,’ but let’s be honest, who then pictures a woman?)
Solutions: How can we make German more inclusive?
There are several ways to make language more inclusive in German. Here are some of the most common strategies:
- Chosing terms that avoid gender binary terms: die Person, der Mensch, das Mitglied, der Gast
Another common example in the university setting is using “die Lehrkraft” instead of Professor/Professorin.
- Plural terms that avoid the binary (ex: Studierende): Whereas the English word student is gender-neutral in English, the traditional word for student in German (Student, Studentin) is now often replaced by the gender-neutral Studierende (plural), or more informally die Studis. So instead of saying “Die Studenten lernen Deutsch” we can say “Die Studierenden lernen Deutsch” – and this sentence is gender-inclusive. Die Studis lieben Deutsch! See the dictionary below for alternative terms for other nouns.
- Doubling (Paarform), or using both feminine and masculine terms (ex: Studentinnen und Studenten): When you hear politicians give speeches, they now say “Liebe Bürgerinnen und liebe Bürger” – dear citizens and citizens… When this doubling happens, the feminine plural is listed first.
- Gender star (Gendersternchen): Ex: Student*innen: Especially in writing, this option is common to refer to a mixed group. (Other options include capital “I” StudentInnen, or underscore Student_innen.)
- Using different formulations such as “wir” or relative clauses: Instead of “Alle Studenten…”, try: “Alle, die studieren…” or “Wer studiert, …” “wir am College…”
Note that this language is not yet standardized. The German Duden (a standard reference work), notes that there is “no norm,” but many options for writing gender-neutral language in German.
In your German classes…
Practice gender-inclusive language, for example by using the “gender star” (Gendersternchen) or pair forms (Paarformen).
Ex: Meine Freund*innen kommen am Wochenende zu mir. Die Professor*innen am College sind sehr freundlich!
More resources for gender-inclusive language
- Genderator – Genderwörterbuch – This is a great resource for language learners. See the example for “Student” – the dictionary lists the gendered terms, with plurals, and then alternatives. Concrete examples for ways to re-formulate a sentence, or alternative nouns.
- Geschickt gendern – Das Genderwörterbuch – A comprehensive dictionary for finding gender-neutral terms to replace binary nouns.
- Ex: der Aktivist -> engagierte Person; politisch aktiver Mensch
- Genderleicht.de – A guide with specific tips for both writing and speaking
- Duden: Geschlechtergerechter Sprachgebrauch – Lists examples for different variants of writing more inclusively. Also gives options
- Pronouns.Page – Includes declensions for nouns and options for making gender binary nouns more inclusive
- Verein für geschlechtsneutrales Deutsch – an organization that wants to create more flexibility in German, provides examples with pronoun “hen”
- Geschlechtsneutrales Deutsch – the “NoNa System,” with the pronoun “hen”
Gender and Pronouns
If you are learning German, you have probably already learned the first-person pronoun ich (Ich komme aus den USA) and second-person du (Kommst du aus Michigan?), or Sie (Kommen Sie aus Berlin?), and plural pronouns wir (we), ihr (y’all), sie (they). These pronouns are not gendered depending on who is speaking, or who is being addressed. Similarly, plural articles are not gendered in German, and the definite article die is used for groups no matter their gender. Ein-words like meine are also neutral: meine Studierenden.
Third-person pronouns are gendered and traditionally binary: sie (she), er (he), ihr (her), sein (his).
- Meine Tante wohnt in Berlin. Sie wohnt in Kreuzberg.
- Das ist meine Mitbewohnerin, Alex. Sie studiert Chemie und Deutsch.
- Mein Vater wohnt in Detroit. Er kommt aus Deutschland aber seine Arbeit ist in Michigan.
What gender-neutral pronouns can I use in German?
In the nonbinary community, there are many alternatives to binary er/sie pronouns in German, including: si*er, xier, dey, em, en, hen, iks, and others. Some even use the English pronoun they. These are called Neopronomen (new pronouns). According to a 2021 survey, the most popular nonbinary pronouns in German are dey, hen, em, sier, and en. Using they or avoiding pronouns is also common. There is a list on the website of Prounouns.page or Nichtbinär-Wiki.
Max wohnt in Berlin. Dey wohnt in Kreuzberg.
Das ist Mika. Xier will nach Berlin reisen.
Jona wohnt in Berlin. Sier wohnt seit einem Jahr in Kreuzberg.
Instead of a pronoun, you can also use the name of the person you are referring to (and some people prefer to avoid pronouns in this way):
Max wohnt in Berlin. Max wohnt in Kreuzberg.
Kim spricht Deutsch. Kims Hund ist total süß!
How can I identify myself and my pronouns?
“Guten Tag, mein Name ist _____, mein Pronomen ist _________.”
“Hallo, ich heiße _____, mein Pronomen ist _____.”
How can I ask about pronouns?
- Was sind deine Pronomen? (What are your pronouns?)
- Wie soll ich dich ansprechen? (How should I address you?)
- Welche Pronomen soll ich für dich benutzen? (Which pronouns should I use for you?)
- Welche Pronomen nutzt du in diesem Rahmen? (Which pronouns do you use in this context/setting?)
What are some examples in German?
- Guten Tag, mein Name ist Mika, mein Pronomen ist “sie.”
- Hallo, ich heiße Alex, mein Pronomen ist “they.”
- Hi, ich bin Michael, er/ihm.
- Hey, ich bin Max, dey/dem.
- Mein Name ist ____, mein Pronomen ist momentan (currently) ________.
- Ich bezeichne mich als genderqueer. (I identify as gender queer)
- Ich identifiziere mich als _______. (I identify as …)
Can I see real-world examples of how pronouns are used?
Here are some examples from public persons in the German-speaking world:
- Leni Bolt from Queer Eye Germany identifies as non-binary and uses the pronouns “sie/ihre” and the English “they/them” (source: 2022 article in Brigitte) You can check out Leni’s Instagram account here.
- The author and activist Hengameh Yaghoobifarah lists these pronouns on their Instagram account: “en: they/them/daddy, de: keine pronomen” (check out their books Ministerium der Träume and Eure Heimat ist unser Alptraum)
- Trans activist and diversity consultant Max Appenroth lists “they/them/he/him” on their Instagram. Check out Appenroth’s Instagram Reels for a Q&A about pronouns in German. (Personal website)
- Black queer activist and DJ Lerato Khathi (alias Lakuti), uses pronouns she/her, sie/ihr (Vogue)
- Author Jayrôme Robinet, author of Mein Weg von einer weißen Frau zu einem jungen Mann mit Migrationshintergrund, uses “er/sein” pronouns, writing a dissertation “Performance Poetry als Empowerment in queeren Kontexten im Bezug auf Liveness und Medialität” (Deutschlandfunk; WordPress; Instagram)
How do I address someone in writing, avoiding gendered terms?
Traditionally a German letter or email starts out “Sehr geehrte Prof. Sederberg” or “Lieber Max”, with a form of address that agrees in gender with the person you are writing to. How can you avoid this, either when you don’t know the gender of the person you are writing, or when you want to opt for gender-neutral language?
- Guten Tag [Vorname] [Nachname] – formal
- Hallo [Vorname] [Nachname] – informal
- Hi [Vorname]! – very informal
Gender-Neutral Pronouns in German: More Resources
There are many other resources available to people who want to avoid gender-binary language. This is a starting point:
- Nichtbinär-Wiki – This collaborative space offers language and resources, from information about terms and definitions to links to activist work. See their fantastic resources on pronouns. Great for language learners because the site first lists pronouns such as “er” and “sie” with sample sentences, and then a long list of neopronouns with examples, “Ey hat eine Katze.” “Ich hab hier hens Socken gefunden.”
- Mein Name mein Pronomen (Blog) with PDF Brochures and Downloads, written by authors who identify as Trans*_genderqueer
- Pronouns Page Collective – This website has incredible resources for pronouns and nouns.
- Xier Pronomen – Illi Anna Heger – The comic artist Illi Anna Heger has developed a comic that helps explain gender pronouns in German, and alternatives like xier or sier. Since 2009, this website has been regularly updated and has remained a fantastic resource, with examples from literature and video games.
When you study abroad in a German-speaking country, you may encounter people who are familiar with gender-neutral language, and non-binary pronouns, and people who are less familiar. You may find that the university setting is different from what you are used to in the United States, or at your college or university. Whereas asking for gender pronouns has now become a standard part of course introductions at many U.S. institutions, this is not yet the case (generally) in Germany. Just as there is regional and cultural diversity within the United States, you will find a great variety of responses to these issues in the German-speaking world.
When introducing yourself to groups, classes, or faculty members, you can identify yourself with the language above (“Guten Tag, mein Name ist _____, mein Pronomen ist _________.”)
Resources in Erlangen
- Referat Queer (Instagram) – Working Group Queer, a space for queer people and topics, organizing activities and informative events.
- queer*denker Erlangen-Nürnberg – a group that provides meetup opportunities for the young queer community
Resources in Lüneburg
- checkpoint-queer– a center and meeting space for the queer community in Lüneburg
- Gender Diversity at Leuphana
- Gender and Queer Studies Reading Group (Leuphana) – open to all members of the university, discussions in English and German
- Gender Inclusive Language (Leuphana)
Updated September 2022.
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